By Andrie de Vries, Joris Meys. When you produce reports in R, you will want your numbers to appear all nicely formatted to enhance the impact of your data on the viewer. You can use format to turn your numbers into pretty text, ready for printing. This function takes a number of arguments to control the format of your result.
Here are a few:. If TRUEit suppresses the leading spaces. In addition, you can control the format of the decimal point with decimal. For example, you can print the number As a more practical example, to calculate the means of some columns in mtcars and then print the results with two digits after the decimal point, use the following:. This wrapper allows you to paste your formatted number directly into a string.
The format argument uses special literals that indicate that the function should replace this literal with a variable and apply some formatting.
The sprintf function is a lot more powerful than that: It gives you an alternative way of pasting the value of any variable into a string:. What happens here is that, because you supplied two vectors each with two elements to sprintfyour result is a vector with two elements. R cycles through the elements and places them into the sprintf literals.
In the help file of R, the definition for digits parameter is as follows:. It is a suggestion only. Valid values are So, it says this is a suggestion only. What if I like to always display 10 digits, not more or less? My second question is, what if I like to display more than 22 digits, i.
The reason it is only a suggestion is that you could quite easily write a print function that ignored the options value. The built-in printing and formatting functions do use the options value as a default. As to the second question, since R uses finite precision arithmetic, your answers aren't accurate beyond 15 or 16 decimal places, so in general, more aren't required.
The gmp and rcdd packages deal with multiple precision arithmetic via an interace to the gmp librarybut this is mostly related to big integers rather than more decimal places for your doubles. Mathematica or Maple will allow you to give as many decimal places as your heart desires. EDIT: It might be useful to think about the difference between decimal places and significant figures.
If you are doing statistical tests that rely on differences beyond the 15th significant figure, then your analysis is almost certainly junk. On the other hand, if you are just dealing with very small numbers, that is less of a problem, since R can handle number as small as. In the first case, differences between numbers only occur after many significant figures, so the data are "nearly constant".
In the second case, Although the size of the differences between numbers are the same, compared to the magnitude of the numbers themselves they are large. As mentioned by e3bo, you can use multiple-precision floating point numbers using the Rmpfr package.
Printing 2 digits after decimal point
These are slower and more memory intensive to use than regular double precision numeric vectors, but can be useful if you have a poorly conditioned problem or unstable algorithm. I don't know of any way of forcing R's higher level functions to print an exact number of digits. Displaying digits does not make sense if you are printing R's usual numbers, since the best accuracy you can get using bit doubles is around 16 decimal digits look at. The remaining digits will just be junk. One more solution able to control the how many decimal digits to print out based on needs if you don't want to print redundant zero s.
For example, if you have a vector as elements and would like to get sum of it. Apparently, the last digital as 1 been truncated, the ideal result should be Following the tutorial here: printing decimal numbersif able to identify how many decimal digits in the certain numeric number, like here in Learn more. Controlling number of decimal digits in print output in R Ask Question.
Asked 10 years, 1 month ago. Active 1 month ago. Viewed k times. There is an option in R to get control over digit display. In the help file of R, the definition for digits parameter is as follows: digits: controls the number of digits to print when printing numeric values. Is this the maximum limit R can handle?
Mehper C. Palavuzlar Mehper C. Palavuzlar 8, 19 19 gold badges 50 50 silver badges 67 67 bronze badges.This tutorial explains how to control the number of decimal places within the R programming language. The table of contents looks as follows:. Figure 1 shows an overview of three different alternatives for controlling decimal places in R. However, in the following examples I will explain these alternatives in more detail.
Consider the following numeric data object:. As you can see: A number with five decimal places. In the following examples, you will learn how to format these decimals in R. If we want to format the decimal places of one specific number or a vector of numberswe can use the format function in combination with the round function and the specification nsmall.
Consider the following R syntax:. As you can see: The number of digits after the decimal point was reduced to three. Note: The output of the format function is a character string. If we want to do calculations with this output, we need to convert it back to the numeric class first. The sprintf R function also provides the possibility to control decimal places of a certain number or a numeric vector.
The output is the same as before. Again, we created a character string with three decimal places. As you can see, the console output is a number with only three decimal places in contrast to the five decimal places that we had before. With the previous R code i. In our specific example, 2 digits before the decimal point and 3 digits after the decimal point. If there would be more digits before the decimal point, the number of digits after the decimal point would be reduced e.
Note: The amount of digits has now been changed for our entire R session. If we would like to change the options back to the default specification, we would have to restart RStudio, or we would have to save the default specification in the forefront.Converts the numeric value of this instance to its equivalent string representation using the specified format and culture-specific format information.
Converts the numeric value of this instance to its equivalent string representation, using the specified format. Converts the numeric value of this instance to its equivalent string representation using the specified culture-specific format information.
The string representation of the value of this instance as specified by format and provider. The following example displays a Double value using each of the supported standard numeric format specifiers for several different cultures. If you want to specify a different format or culture, use the other overloads of the ToString method, as follows:.
The format parameter can be any valid standard numeric format specifier except for D and X, as well as any combination of custom numeric format specifiers. If format is null or an empty string, the return value for this instance is formatted with the general numeric format specifier "G". NET Framework provides extensive formatting support, which is described in greater detail in the following formatting topics:.
For more information about formatting, see Formatting Types. The provider parameter supplies culture-specific information used in formatting.
If provider is nullthe return value is formatted using the NumberFormatInfo object for the current culture. By default, the return value only contains 15 digits of precision although a maximum of 17 digits is maintained internally.
If the value of this instance has greater than 15 digits, ToString returns PositiveInfinitySymbol or NegativeInfinitySymbol instead of the expected number. If you require more precision, specify format with the "G17" format specification, which always returns 17 digits of precision, or "R", which returns 15 digits if the number can be represented with that precision or 17 digits if the number can only be represented with maximum precision.
To work around this problem, you can format Double values by using the "G17" standard numeric format string. The following example uses the "R" format string with a Double value that does not round-trip successfully, and also uses the "G17" format string to successfully round-trip the original value. The string representation of the value of this instance as specified by format. The following example defines a numeric value and formats it as a currency value by using the "C" standard numeric format string and as a numeric value to three decimal places by using the "N" standard numeric format string.
The result strings are formatted by using the conventions of the en-US culture. The following example displays several Double values using the supported standard numeric format specifiers together with three custom numeric format strings. One of those custom format strings illustrates how to pad a Single value with leading zeros.
In addition, the example uses precision specifiers with each standard format specifier except for "R". The values of the precision specifiers range from 0 to 3. To convert the numeric values to strings, the example uses the formatting conventions of the en-US culture. The ToString String method formats a Double value in a specified format by using the conventions of the current culture.
If format is null or an empty string, the return value is formatted with the general numeric format specifier "G".
Format Number of Decimal Places in R (2 Example Codes)
The string representation of the value of this instance as specified by provider. The following example displays the string representation of two Double values using CultureInfo objects that represent several different cultures. Optional elements are framed in square brackets [ and ]. Elements that contain the term "digits" consist of a series of numeric characters ranging from 0 to 9.
Both of these work, except sometimes a decimal of 5 is rounded down instead of up. Follow me on Twitter and Githubthat's where I'm most active these days. I welcome emailbut I'm afraid I no longer have time to answer personal requests for help regarding my plugins or posts.
The dark mode beta is finally here. Change your preferences any time. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. I would like to limit the number of decimals when a data frame is imported.
My dataframe look like that:. Here is. We then apply round to the numeric columns:. If what you meant was not that you need to change the data frame but just that you want to display the data frame to 8 digits then it's just:.
Created on by the reprex package v0. I have a dataframe of 13 columns where the 1st 2 columns are integers and the rest of the columns are numeric with decimals.
I want the decimal values alone to be restricted to 2 decimal places. Applying G. Grothendieck 's method above, a simple solution below:. Learn more. Limiting the number of decimals in a dataframe R Ask Question. Asked 5 years, 11 months ago. Active 5 months ago. Viewed 48k times.
My dataframe look like that: Value 0. My expected dataframe Value 0. Ratio Active Oldest Votes. We then apply round to the numeric columns: is. Grothendieck G.
Fixing Knitr: Formatting Statistical Output to 2 Digits in R
Grothendieck k 12 12 gold badges silver badges bronze badges. That modification is enough? Now, you code works Can I limit the characters in a line in some other way? Grothendieck Apr 22 '14 at I found a non numeric value in DF If I wanna to maintain those strings and do something about decimals what can I do? Thank you very much! Tung Tung Sign up or log in Sign up using Google.Keep in touch and stay productive with Teams and Officeeven when you're working remotely.
Or if you want to round to the nearest major unit, such as thousands, hundreds, tens, or ones, use a function in a formula. By using a button:. On the Home tab, click Increase Decimal or Decrease Decimal to show more or fewer digits after the decimal point. By applying a built-in number format:. On the Home tab, in the Number group, click the arrow next to the list of number formats, and then click More Number Formats. In the Category list, depending on the type of data you have, click CurrencyAccountingPercentageor Scientific.
How to Format Numbers in R
In the Decimal places box, enter the number of decimal places that you want to display. By using a function in a formula :. This function has only two arguments arguments are pieces of data the formula needs to run.
Suppose that cell A1 contains To round the number to the nearest:. Use a negative number here because you want the rounding to happen to the left of the decimal point. The same thing applies to the next two formulas that round to hundreds and tens. Use a positive number here to round the number to the number of decimal points you specify. The same thing applies to the next two formulas that round to hundredths and thousandths.
For example, if you want to round 3. For example, if you want to round down 3. In the Advanced category, under Editing optionsselect the Automatically insert a decimal point check box. In the Places box, enter a positive number for digits to the right of the decimal point or a negative number for digits to the left of the decimal point. If you enter -3 in the Places box and then type in a cell, the value will be To remove decimal points from numbers that you already entered with fixed decimals, do the following:.
In the Advanced category, under Editing optionsclear the Automatically insert a decimal point check box. In an empty cell, type a number such as 10, or 1,depending on the number of decimal places that you want to remove. For example, type in the cell if the numbers contain two decimal places and you want to convert them to whole numbers.
On the worksheet, select the cells that contain the numbers with decimal places that you want to change. In the Paste Special dialog box, under Operation, click Multiply. You can always ask an expert in the Excel Tech Communityget support in the Answers communityor suggest a new feature or improvement on Excel User Voice.
Round a number. Why does a number appear rounded? Learn more. Formulas and functions. More functions.
Round a number to the decimal places I want. You can set a default decimal point for numbers in Excel Options. To temporarily override the fixed decimal option, type a decimal point when you type the number.